Causes of prematurity
Today, every time there is a higher percentage of premature babies. The stress of mothers and the problems of modern society contribute to the gestational period children are not met. However, beyond these generic problems, in most cases it is not possible to determine the cause of prematurity. It gives a big way in multiple pregnancies and can also contribute to health problems in the mother, such as diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, as well as have certain infections, congenital abnormalities of the uterus or hypertension. Keep in mind at this point also the age of the mother, since there are more likely to have a newborn if the woman is younger than 19 or older than 40.
The stress of mothers and the problems of modern society contribute to the gestational period is not met
As mentioned bearing life mother also affects the possible prematurity of the child. Ignoring the health care homes, not drinking, not smoking or taking other psychotropic or narcotic substances can cause birth occurs earlier. Malnutrition shortly before or during pregnancy is also a factor to consider.
Possible risks of prematurity.
A baby born before 35 weeks of gestation are "immature" and need support and care of the nursery to survive outside the womb. Let's now examine some of the signs and dangers that may have a premature baby:
- Abundant body hair.
- Thin skin, so that may even see the veins of the body.
- Weight lower than it would if you were born a week that would correspond (weighing between 500 and 2500 grams), because it has not had sufficient time to develop and grow in the uterus time. They also have low body fat and muscle.
- Food Problems because preterm infants have difficulty sucking and digest food.
- Anemia, that is, not enough red blood cells to carry oxygen to tissues.
- Respiratory problems, given the lack of maturation of the lungs and the rest of your respiratory system.
Typically have called apneas, ie, your breathing becomes slow or interrupted.
- Jaundice (yellowing of the skin due to the accumulation of bilirubin).
- Clitorix enlarged, girls.
- Necrotizing enterocolitis: when the death of intestinal tissue.
- Intraventricular hemorrhage: bleeding of the brain ventricles.
- Periventricular leukomalacia: death of small areas of brain tissue.
In addition to these dangers that preterm infants may have, we must also refer to those who may have subsequently long term.
They may have, first, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a chronic lung disorder due to prematurity or having a breathing at birth. They may continue to experience apneas, so perhaps it is required that the child continues monitored even at home, to avoid risks.
Also premature may have hearing or vision problems related to immature nerves or as a result of the treatment they have received. Finally, you may experience some developmental delays and learning disabilities, because of brain damage from his prematurity.
As mentioned, preterm infants often have problems with the major body systems, especially as regards the respiratory, digestive system and in terms of regulating its temperature (lack the body fat necessary to maintain the same).
So the first thing you do in the neonatal unit regarding the care to address these problems is to put the baby in an incubator that protects the outside keep their body temperature properly. In addition, these babies are monitored all the time so that the health workforce account in any case if a problem occurs. These monitors control your breathing, your heart rate and blood oxygen level.
Also, for the weak development of their bodies, they are connected to a respirator or ventilator to help them breathe without difficulty and a probe that keeps them fed.
more likely to have a newborn if the woman is younger than 19 or older than 40
Thus, the main care treatment in these early weeks postpartum focus on feeding and breathing. Premature babies can not feed directly from the breast or bottle because they are too immature. Until spend more weeks, most children have to eat slowly so that there is no risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal infection which we have referred. At nenonato you will probe which is connected either to a vein, either through the nose into the stomach. However, given the benefits of breast milk, the mother can express her milk so that it is administered by the probe to the baby. It is always preferable to feed the baby breast milk because it has proteins that help avoid the dangers of infection and promote growth.
Medical personnel, if deemed appropriate, enriched milk will provide the child with specific vitamin supplements. In addition, they also tend to give supplements of calcium and phosphorus in milk, as well as all those substances and minerals that the baby required in the case for their care.
The baby will be in this situation, maturing their bodies until the medical staff considers that these have already been developed and successfully enough to pass it to a safe crib. This period may last several weeks or even months, until you can breathe, feed himself and maintain your weight and temperature.
Finally, just comment that since each nenonato is special in itself and despite the advancement of science, it is not possible to predict if a baby or not properly respond to treatment. However at present, thanks to scientific research, over 60% of children who weigh more than half a kilo at birth survive; and if it exceeds 800 grams, this percentage rises to 90%. With the passage of time and always with the great work of medical and scientific staff, we are confident that the risks of prematurity and decrease the survival rate will reach 100%.